Water & Sanitation based STEAM content

Most of the tap water used at home in the developed world is used for home and personal sanitation. Uses include toilet flushing, laundry, dishwashing and household hygiene. Home use ranks high among the three leading uses of the resource, Agriculture (highest) and industry being the two other main uses. while water supplied to the homes must be of the highest quality level and meet the highest standards,  Agriculture should meet high quality standards yet it can tolerate less stringent requirements. 

Therefore urban sewage and industrial wastewater, if properly treatedת can be reclaimed for reuse for irrigation, providing a very significant source of water reuse, and saving on use of drinking water to irrigate. 

Alternatively  the treated waist water can be returned to nature rivers, lakes, aquifers and help balance the overall water supply/demand balance.

In Israel where water has always been a rare resource, wastewater treatment and reclamation was developed on a national scale and 90% of the wastewater is reclaimed (and growing). The treated waste water is accumulated in over 800 large reservoirs around the country during the winter (When irrigation is based mostly on rain), to be later used for irrigation in the summer.

the chapter describes the key elements of wastewater reclamation, as well as the reuse for irrigation, the water quality stand arts involved 

including overall energy and carbon foot print consideration aimed to assure that while reclaiming wastewater, we also minimize the other side impact  like high energy demand which are harmful to the environment.

The chapter includes some detailed description of wastewater treatment plants, and the associated standards.  

the subject is highly dependent on standards and regulations, and the build up of a nation wide system to store and use the reclaimed water



Introduction to the Sea Water desalination

Water supply is based on pumping water through pipes. the subject offers opportunity to examine the physics associated with water pumping. The energy it takes, what is pressure, and how to build it. What is the difference between sucking water and pumping water ? and how do hydraulic valves work, and how to use them to reduce leakage of water out of the pimping system. 

All the above are subject treated in the following chapter

This course deals with the protection of the environment. Mankind and manmade technology has a great impact on the environment and planet earth. We use energy to propel the technology that supports our life on earth, but in so doing, we are harmful to the very planet we live on, where humanity has evolved, developed and flourished. In so doing we risk the very basic environment on which our life on earth depends.    

We emit greenhouse gases like CO2 when we burn fossil fuel as a source of energy, and give rise to global climate worming. This in turn will raise the sea and ocean levels, We pollute water resources,  and when we do address the growing water and sanitation challenges, by means of seawater desalination or wastewater treatment and reclamation, in most cases we use excessive energy, again hurting the atmosphere.  We eat too much meat, pollute the air and unroot the forests that can recycle the CO2,  We produce and use a lot of useful plastic products, that we than dispose of carelessly risking the seas, oceans and land and life in and on them including our own lives, with monumental quantities of untreated plastic waste. We keep excavating minerals and materials  without proper replenishment and recycling, and more and more... 

We need a different approach that takes into account the long term sustainability of planet earth and its inhabitants. That is not to say that we need to stop living, but rather that we should not take our long term sustainable life on earth for granted. We should  take action to assure it, through Reduction (of what we use and consume), Reuse the material and resources we used (like cars' computers, clothing, toys etc.), and Recycle those that can not be used any more (like water paper, cloth  or plastic). Together referred to as RRR

This is the focus of this chapter, as it relates to water, energy and plastic. It is a new topic, recently added to the Rotary key areas of focus, Teachers are welcome to suggest new ideas and share their experiences.